inc. Northeast Transept and Water Tower
Fire Watchers Memorial
Great West Window
Western Crypt (South Aisle)
Our Lady Undercroft
St Gabriel Chapel
Western Crypt (North Aisle)
Ch. of Holy Innocents
St Nicholas Ch.
St Mary Magdalene Ch.
Altar of the Sword Point
The Deans' Chapel
Great South Window
St Augustine's Chair
North Choir Aisle
Trinity Chapel North
Henry IV Tomb
Trinity Chapel South
South Choir Aisle
St Anselm's Chapel
St Michael's Chapel
Crypt access & Exit
South, East, North & West panes
Victorian stained glass
Hint. View the map ‘landscape’ on small screens.
MapThere is much to appreciate here. As we leave the Presbytery, on our immediate right is the elaborate and colourful tomb of Archbishop Henry Chichele. To our left, in the western end of the north aisle, are two important 12th/13th century stained glass Bible Windows and a 15th century wall painting of the legendary St Eustace. High up in the Northeast Transept, we find more fine examples of 12th century stained glass in the Oculus window and four original Genealogical windows.
While you are here, don’t miss the new Water Tower exhibition space (enter through the Northeast Transept corridor).
By far the most colourful tomb in the Cathedral shows long-serving Archbishop Henry Chichele (1414-1443) in full regalia on top, and as a cadaver underneath.
This tomb, built by master mason Thomas Mapilton in 1425, is a fine example of a transi-tomb that became popular in northern Europe in the early fifteenth century – a transitory tomb in which the worldly achievements of the deceased above are juxtaposed with the deathly decay of the mortal body below. The Latin inscription underneath reads:
“I was a pauper born, then to primate here raised, now I am cut down and served up for worms…”
For the Archbishop, the tomb was very much a personal memento mori – a reminder of mortality – because the lower part of the tomb was in place 18 years before his death. Archbishop Chichele would have been reminded of his mortality every time he took up his seat on the Archbishop’s Throne only a few metres away!
Henry Chichele was the founder of All Souls College, Oxford – and the excellent condition of his tomb today is due to the fact that the college funded the restoration of the tomb in 1897-9 and has contributed toward its upkeep ever since.
Identifying the figures in the niches
Kempe’s carved figures include all the significant Canterbury saints – Dunstan, Alphege and Anselm as well as an Archbishop with a sword through his head – no prizes for guessing that one!
Viewed from the North Aisle, top to bottom –
Top left (East):
- William of Wyckham, Bishop of Winchester
- King Henry VI
- Virgin and Child
- King Henry V.
- Queen Margaret of Anjou
- Alphege (with bones)
- Duke of Clarence (brother of Henry V)
- Archangel Gabriel
- Mary de Bohun (first wife of Henry IV)
Top right (West)
- Thomas Becket (sword in head)
- Abraham (with Chichele in his bosom)
- St Augustine of Hippo
- Anselm (his book Cur Deus Homo)
- Edmund Rich
- Archangel Michael (with a dragon)
- St Jerome
- Augustine of Canterbury (with banner)
The two Bible (or Theological) windows here in the western wing of the North Choir aisle are all that remain of a series of twelve stained glass windows, dating from 1180-1220 that were destroyed in 1642/3 during the English Civil War.
These windows are regarded as the best examples of 12th century glass in the Cathedral and equal to any found anywhere in Europe.
The purpose of the windows was instructional – the central New Testament scene in each row of glass, drawn from the life and teachings of Christ, is shown alongside events from the Old Testament, which are said to directly ‘prefigure’ or foreshadow it. At a time when literacy was the privilege of the educated few, these illustrations would have played a key part in the teaching of Bible stories – and such windows are often referred to as the “Poor Man’s Bible”.
The remaining scenes in this window, and those in the right-hand window, have been assembled from other windows and therefore lack a common theme, though the quality and artistry is abundantly clear. Notable scenes in the second Bible window are – The Wedding at Cana and The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (round panels, 2rd and 3rd down) and Noah in Ark with Dove (semi-circular panel, 3rd down on left).
Who’s who in the first Bible Window
|Top row||Balaam’s ass, stopped by the light of an angel, predicts the appearance of the Star.|
|The three Kings (Magi) entering Jerusalem, with the Star above.|
|Isiah at the gate of Jerusalem, prophesying the appearance of a “great light”.|
|Second Row||The Exodus – Moses guided by a pillar of fire. The Red Sea parts.|
|The three Kings before Herod.|
|Christ leads the Gentiles to God, away from heathen idols.|
|Third Row||Queen of Sheba presents gifts to King Solomon.|
|The Nativity. The three Kings present gifts to the Holy Child. Shepherds in attendance.|
|Joseph and his Brethren come to Egypt to buy corn.|
|Fourth Row||Lot’s Wife turns to a pillar of salt when she looks back at Sodom and Gomorrah, which are in flames.|
|An angel warns the three Kings not to return to Herod or disclose the whereabouts of Christ.|
|King Jeroboam slaughtering the lamb, over which is a scroll advising the prophet: “Do not return by the way which you came”.|
|Fifth Row||Hannah presents Samuel to Eli in the Temple.|
|Mary presents Jesus to Simeon in the Temple.|
|The sower sowing seeds on stony ground, while the birds of the air hover above. (Originally, Melchizedech offering bread and wine to Abraham – now lost).§|
|Sixth row||The Church and the sons of Noah, Ham, Shem and Japhet, dividing the World between them.|
|Christ abandoned by the Pharisees. (St John 6, v. 66)|
|Virginity, Continence and Marriage (the three blameless states of life).|
|Bottom row||Rich men, representing the seed of the stony ground, represented by two Roman Emperors, Julian the Apostate and Maurice.|
|The sower, sowing an abundant crop on the good ground.|
|Daniel, Job and Noah, the three righteous men, the seed of the good ground.|
This 15th century wall painting tells the story of the legend of St Eustace, the Christian convert and martyr – speculatively, the Roman General Placidus – and patron saint of hunters, who is thought to have lived in the 2nd century AD.
The story should be read from bottom to top. St Eustace’s faith is tested many times, as the painting shows. His sons are eaten by a wolf and a lion and it doesn’t end well for Eustace – he and his remaining family are (according to this interpretation anyway) boiled or roasted alive inside a bull.
The painting occupies a “blind arch”, intended as a window when built c.1130, and filled in by William of Sens in 1177 during the rebuilding of the Choir after the fire of 1174. At some stage during the 16th or 17th centuries the painting was lime-washed over. It was only rediscovered in 1830 when the wall was cleaned.
The lower walls of this transept (built c.1106) are survivors of the serious fire of 1174 that destroyed the roof and most of the fabric of the Choir and Trinity Chapel. It was rebuilt by William of Sens, who raised the height of the roof and walls, between 1175-1178 and completed by William the Englishman in 1180.
Chapels and Monuments
The two chapels on the east side of the transept are those of the fourth century St Martin (left), and St Stephen (right) – the first Christian martyr (d. AD36). The ‘medieval’ stained glass in these chapels, depicting scenes from the life of the two saints, mostly dates from the 1950s.
On the left wall of St Martin’s Chapel is a mediaeval oil painting (c.1486) of the Saxon Queen Ediva (aka Eadgifu), third wife of Edward the Elder (899-925) whose bones are interred beneath. Ediva is described as “mother of the whole English nation”, though “step-mother” might be more accurate. Her step-son Athelstan (by Edward’s first consort, Ecgwynn) is considered to be the first king of all England, having extended his rule to Northumbria in 927. This chapel also contains the bones of three early archbishops – Wulfred (805-832), Lyfing (1013/1020) and Lanfranc (1070-1089).
Stained glass in the transept
Also high up in the clerestory of the transept are 4 of the original 86 Genealogical Windows, most of which were relocated to the Great West and Great South windows in the 1790s and replaced by copies. These original figures of Shem, Isaac, Cosam (probably) and Phares give some idea of how the clerestory glass must have appeared prior to the mass removal of the “Ancestors of Christ”.
This new exhibition space in the former Water Tower (built c.1156) and the corridor leading to it, contains a small collection of chalices, goblets, communion cups and other church plate from parish churches across Kent and from the Cathedral’s collection. The objects have been chosen to illustrate changes in fashion and liturgical practice since the Reformation.
Within the Water Tower itself, the two small items displayed here symbolise different aspects of the monastic life that was led at Canterbury until the adjoining Priory was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1540.
The first item, representing “Prayer and Devotion”, is a small Anglo-Saxon pocket sundial in silver and gold with embedded gemstones, thought to date from the 10th century. The monks’ long day was organised around the celebration of mass and the observance of eight ‘offices’ – the first at 2 a.m. and the last at 7 p.m. – which involved prayer, bible reading and the singing of psalms. Timekeeping was of the essence. The sundial was found in 1938 buried beneath the cloister and was made specifically for use at the Canterbury latitude (50°N). There are two sides of the instrument – one side calibrated for the altitude of the sun during the spring/summer months, and the other for the autumn/winter months. The gold gnomon pin (that casts the shadow) is placed in one of three holes corresponding to the pairs of months on either side of the equinox. The time can then be read off by reference to the length of the shadow cast. In practice, the sundial was only as useful as the English weather is reliable, and it seems likely therefore, that the sundial was treated as a valuable and beautifully crafted status object.
The second object – a mediaeval bronze stylus – exemplifies the “Learning and Knowledge” aspects of the monastic life. Along with their other responsibilities, some of the monks would have worked as scribes in the scriptorium – it was a valued and sought-after skill. The stylus is thought to be 13th or 14th century, possibly earlier, and was discovered in the 1860s during the renovation of St Andrew’s Chapel. The stylus may have been used for writing on a wax tablet – or for scoring guide lines across manuscripts.
The door immediately to the right the foot of the steps to the Trinity Chapel, is the door to the Wax Chamber, now an office, formerly the Watching Chamber. From here, between 1180 and 1220, the two monks William and Benedict watched and recorded over 700 miracles that were said to have occurred at the first tomb of St Thomas in the Eastern Crypt below.
Information Point. At the foot of the steps leading up to the Trinity Chapel, there is a touch-screen guide to the Trinity Chapel and Corona for the benefit of visitors who are unable to manage the steps beyond this point.