Fire Watchers Memorial
Great West Window
Western Crypt (South Aisle)
Our Lady Undercroft
St Gabriel Chapel
Western Crypt (North Aisle)
Ch. of Holy Innocents
St Nicholas Ch.
St Mary Magdalene Ch.
Altar of the Sword Point
The Deans' Chapel
Great South Window
St Augustine's Chair
North Choir Aisle
Trinity Chapel North
Henry IV Tomb
Trinity Chapel South
South Choir Aisle
St Anselm's Chapel
Stairs to the Crypt
Level access to Martyrdom
South, East, North & West panes
South, East, North & West panes
Victorian stained glass
Hint. View the map ‘landscape’ on small screens.
MapEntering the Cathedral through the Southwest porch, the immediate impression is of the sheer scale and grandeur of this Gothic building. The elegantly proportioned columns in the Nave rise upwards to the lierne vaulted roof, 25 meters (82 feet) overhead, and the view looking east, towards the Pulpitum arch into the Choir and Trinity Chapel beyond, is as awe-inspiring to today’s visitor as it must have been to the fifteenth century pilgrim. Access via NW Door
Note. The view of the lierne roof vault and parts of the Great West Window are currently obscured by safety decking (scheduled to be removed in early 2022) whilst repairs to the roof are carried out.
- Height of the Nave vault: 25 metres (82 feet)
- Length of the Nave to Pulpitum screen: 66 metres (215 feet)
- 1071 Archbishop Lanfranc’s ‘Norman/Romanesque’ Nave construction begins. Completed 1086
- 1377 Demolition. After 300 years Lanfranc’s Nave is in “a notorious and evident state of ruin”
- 1382 Rebuilding is delayed through lack of funds – and the impact of the 1382 earthquake
- 1405 Nave reconstruction is completed in ‘Perpendicular Gothic’ style.
- 1648 The Nave as a stable. During the English Civil War 300 military horses are stabled here.
- 1787 Nave clearance, instigated by Dean Horne
There is much of note here, including the many monuments and plaques on the surrounding walls. In the immediate vicinity we find the Great West Window, the Fire Watchers memorial pavement and the seventeenth century font with its connection to the English Civil War.
Orientation. On entering the Cathedral via the Southwest Porch, the small Fire Watchers memorial stone is in the floor in the centre, more or less in front of you. Turning into the Nave, the Font is nearby on the north (left hand) side. The Great West Window is best seen when looking back from a viewpoint further into the Nave.
In the floor of the western Nave, just to the east of the central west door is a memorial paving stone to the Fire Watchers of Canterbury who, during WWII, manned strategic positions in the City including on the Cathedral roof.
One third of medieval Canterbury was destroyed in German air raids between 1940-44. On 1st June 1942, during the so-called “Baedeker” air raid, said to be a reprisal bombing for the Allied 1,000 bomber raid on Cologne on 29th May 1942, two bombs destroyed the Cathedral library to the north, and several houses to the south. The blast blew out much of the glass in the Southwest Transept.
The Fire Watchers stationed on the roof dealt with each incendiary device, either by throwing it to the ground below using long handled shovels, or by dousing it with sand or water using a stirrup pump. The fact that the Cathedral did not suffer serious fire damage from the incendiaries that fell on the roof during this and subsequent air raids was very much down to the individual bravery of The Fire Watchers.
The font, a gift from Canon John Warner in 1639, was smashed by the Puritan iconoclasts only three years later in 1642. The broken pieces were collected up by William Somner (registrar to Archbishop William Laud) and hidden in his house. Following the Restoration of Charles II the font was repaired and reinstated in the Nave in 1663.
The restored font remained in the Nave until 1787, when the Dean George Horne‘s notorious Nave Clearance took place. It was returned to its original position in the Nave only in 1896, where it has remained ever since.
The font stands on a marble plinth, with the four figures of the Evangelists (Saint Matthew with an angel, Mark with a lion, Luke with a bull and John with an eagle) around the stem. Above this, there is a shallow, octagonal fluted bowl, on which a two-storey wooden cover rests, adorned with figures of the 12 Apostles, 8 on the lower storey, with the remaining 4 above. The cover rises to a pinnacle, on which stands a figure of Christ blessing little children and is raised by a metal pulley, which hangs from a bracket, bearing the royal arms of Charles II (1660/1685), marking his restoration in 1660. Under the cover, a dove represents the Holy Ghost.
This window is closely associated with Richard II (1377-1399), though he was deposed before it was completed, and it is possible that he commissioned the window directly. The tracery border at the very top of the window contains the coats of arms of Richard and of his two wives, Anne of Bohemia and Isabella of France, whom he married by proxy in 1396 when she was six years old.
Though completed in 1405, this window is significant in that it contains some historically important 12th century portraits in stained glass – The Ancestors of Christ – that were moved here from elsewhere in the Cathedral in the 1790s.
In the centre of the bottom row of the window is the famous depiction of the fallen Adam delving wearing a fleece, dating from around 1178. Until recently this work was generally regarded as the oldest stained glass portrait in England – though art historian Prof Madeline Caviness has suggested, as long ago as 1987, that four of the Ancestors seemed to belong stylistically to an earlier period than those in the rest of the series. Recent spectroscopic examination of the portrait of Nathan (using a handheld “Windolyster”) in the Great South Window has confirmed this hypothesis, and Nathan is now dated to 1130-1160 i.e. before the fire of 1174 that destroyed most of the Choir and Trinity Chapel.
This analysis strongly suggests that the similarly styled portraits of Rehoboam (ROBOAS) and his son Abijah (ABIAS) in the second row from the bottom of this window should also be dated to 1130-60, making them the oldest surviving stained glass portraits anywhere in the world.
Who’s Who in the Great West Window
The bottom two rows of main lights contain 13 genealogical figures – the Ancestors of Christ – dating from the 12th and 13th centuries. These figures were moved here (and to the Great South Window) from high up the eastern clerestories of the Choir and Trinity Chapel in 1799, to fill the space left after the destruction of much of the Cathedral’s stained glass by Puritan iconoclasts in 1642-3.
Identification of panels (top to bottom) in the Great West Window:
- Top row Six Prophets wearing hats (unidentified)
- Middle row Ten Saints:  St Philip, with 2 loaves,  St Simon, holding a scimitar,  &  unidentified,  St James Major (of Compostella),  &  unidentified,  St Paul, holding a sword, and  unidentified
- Bottom row The 12 Apostles, haloed:  St Peter with keys and book,  &  unidentified,  St John the Evangelist, with poisoned chalice,  St Matthias with spear,  St James the Less with club and book,  St Matthew (a scroll bears his name),  St Bartholomew bears a knife and book (traditionally he was flayed alive),  St Simon with banner and book,  &  unidentified and  St Matthias with book and spear.
- Top row Seven kings: The kings are not named so there can be no certainty as to their identity but an “educated guess” has suggested that they may be left to right:  Canute (1016/1035),  Edward the Confessor (1042/1066),  Harold (Godwinson) II (1066),  William I “the Conqueror” (1066/1087),  William II (Rufus) (1087/1100),  Henry I (1100/1135) and  Stephen (1135/1154).
Note. The eighth king in the middle of the row below is modern and probably by Cathedral Glazier, Samuel Caldwell Junior, c.1925, and may be intended to represent Henry II (1154/1189), being the next in the chronological order, and significant because of his part in the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170.
- Middle row Across the top of the second (midddle) row of lights is another set of the Apostles (three on either side of Henry II) and below them are (from left to right):  Jechonias with book and bowl of coins,  Obed and  Rehoboam, with lettered scrolls, and then to the right of the king,  Abijah,  Jesse and  Salathiel. These are 6 of the original genealogical images, moved here from the upper clerestories of the Choir, Trinity Chapel and East Transept. Rehoboam and Abijah date from 1130-60 and the remaining four from 1180-90.
- Bottom row The third row of main lights of this window contains a further 7 original genealogical images, also transferred here from the eastern clerestories. They are (left to right):  Esrom (1178),  Naasson and  Semei (incorrectly labelled Seth – the head is a replacement by George Austin Jnr., c.1855 – the original head, c.1180, has mysteriously found its way to the Victoria & Albert Museum) and then  the famous picture of Adam delving, (c. 1178) after his expulsion from the Garden of Eden, with a spade in hand and clad only in a fleece. To his right, are  Joseph,  Aminadab and  Aram (also c.1178). All, except Adam, are shown full face, seated on a chair or throne, wearing a mantle, loosely draped over their tunic, with Gothic script behind their heads.
Ref. David Bell – A Guide’s Guide to Canterbury Cathedral §1.32